Fergus Falls Regional Treatment Center in Fergus Falls, MN: A Tale of Triumph and Tragedy

The Birth of the Fergus Falls Regional Treatment Center

Tucked away in Fergus Falls, Minnesota, stands an impressive testament to a bygone era in mental health treatment. In 1885, the state’s mental health institutions were bursting at the seams, and the existing hospitals in southern Minnesota were falling short of the growing demand.

The State Board of Health declared a state of emergency, calling the facilities at the St. Peter Hospital for the Insane “appalling and a disgrace to the state.”

A solution was needed – and quickly. In response to this crisis, the state legislature commissioned the Third Minnesota State Hospital for the Insane.

A variety of locations were considered, but it was Fergus Falls that was ultimately chosen for this ambitious project. The decision was reached on December 14, 1886, and thus, the Fergus Falls State Hospital was born.

The guiding philosophy for this new institution came from physician Thomas Kirkbride, who firmly believed that building design played a crucial role in patient treatment. The resulting hospital, built according to the Kirkbride Plan, was a sight.

At its heart was a central administrative structure flanked by long, straight wings radiating outward. These wings housed the patients, providing a uniform, precise, and austere living space designed to instill discipline.

As part of their “moral treatment,” patients were engaged in activities such as farming, sewing, and entertainment – all to provide therapeutic benefits.

The Early Years

The Fergus Falls State Hospital, designed by architect Warren B. Dunnell, was one of the last Kirkbride structures built in the United States. With a sprawling campus and stately buildings that stood tall against the Minnesota skyline, it was a beacon of hope in mental health treatment.

On July 29, 1890, the hospital opened its doors to admit its inaugural two patients. The next day, 80 patients were transferred from the St. Peter Hospital. However, it wasn’t until 1893 that women were admitted to the institution. With the arrival of 125 women from St. Peter, the hospital was well and truly operational.

Over time, the number of individuals residing at the hospital swelled, reaching an estimated 1,700 by the end of the 1920s, securing its status as the state’s most populous mental health institution. This growth mirrored that of the town itself, with the population of Fergus Falls more than doubling between 1890 and 1930.

Evolution and Challenges

Despite its noble intentions, the Fergus Falls State Hospital faced challenges. It quickly became overcrowded, ironically replicating the issue it was designed to alleviate.

While patients could voluntarily seek admission, many were sent by court order and stayed for life. These were often individuals who were poor and had few resources to rely on in times of trouble.

The hospital pioneered various treatments throughout the twentieth century, including occupational therapy and shock treatment. However, the court system often treated the hospital as a convenient way to isolate social outcasts, casting a shadow over its therapeutic efforts.

After World War II, drug therapy ushered in a new era of outpatient care, resulting in a scaling back of the Minnesota hospital system. This led to a significant shift in the hospital’s mission in 1971 when it became Minnesota’s first multi-purpose regional center.

This meant it started serving patients based on their geographical location rather than specific needs. The hospital began accepting patients with developmental disabilities and chemical dependencies, reflecting this new mandate.

Closure and Legacy

The turn of the twenty-first century ended an era for the Fergus Falls Regional Treatment Center. The institution closed its doors in 2005 as part of a gradual shift towards smaller, community-based facilities. The once bustling hospital campus was now eerily quiet, its buildings echoing the stories of the countless lives passing through its doors.

Despite its closure, the building’s future remained a topic of intense debate. In 2007, land ownership transferred from the state to the city of Fergus Falls, igniting a wave of conversation around the possibilities for the site’s future use.

Preservationists rallied to save the main building, pointing to its historical significance and designation on the National Register of Historic Places.

Conversely, some voiced concerns that the structure’s immense size posed a considerable challenge for a smaller town to revamp or upkeep, proposing razing the building as a potentially more practical route.

Today, the Fergus Falls Regional Treatment Center is a poignant reminder of a pivotal chapter in Minnesota’s mental health history. While its future remains uncertain, its legacy continues to resonate, offering invaluable lessons about mental health treatment and the role of institutions in providing care.

From its inception as a state-of-the-art facility designed to alleviate overcrowding, through its transformation into a multi-purpose regional center, to its eventual closure, the center has been a microcosm of the evolution of mental health care in the state.


As we stroll down memory lane, tracing the history of the Fergus Falls Regional Treatment Center, we are reminded of the enduring impact of this institution.

Its story is a tale of ambition and innovation, resilience in the face of adversity, and the relentless pursuit of better mental health care. Though its doors may have closed, the center’s legacy lives on, etched into the very fabric of Fergus Falls.

The debates about the future of the building are more than just discussions about brick and mortar. They testify to the building’s significance in the community and the state’s history.

Whether it stands as a monument to the past, is repurposed for a new chapter, or makes way for something entirely new, the Fergus Falls Regional Treatment Center will forever be a part of Minnesota’s mental health narrative.

The echo of footsteps in the now-empty corridors, the vacant rooms that once buzzed with activity, and the quiet that has replaced the constant hum of life are constant reminders of the center’s history. They are silent witnesses to the countless lives touched by this institution, the struggles faced, the victories celebrated, and the lessons learned.

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